The water pressure is generally provided by a pump.In general, musical fountain landscape can be divided into two categories:
The first is to adapt measures to local conditions, according to the topography of the site, imitating natural waterscapes, such as wall springs, springs, mist springs, pipes, streams, waterfalls, water curtains, water drops, water waves, whirlpools, etc.
The second is to rely entirely on artificial landscaping with fountain equipment. This type of waterscape is widely used in the field of construction, with rapid development speed and a wide variety of types, including musical fountains, program-controlled fountains, swing fountains, running fountains, bright fountains, fun fountains, super high fountains, laser water curtain movies, etc.
Fountains are artificially constructed plastics or natural spring ponds, with beautiful water gestures for people to watch. The fountain is an important part of the garden. In modern gardens, in addition to plant landscapes, fountains are also important landscapes. It is not only a waterscape art, which embodies the combination of movement and static, forming a bright and lively atmosphere, giving people a beautiful enjoyment; at the same time, fountains can also increase the air in the air. The content of negative ions plays a role in purifying the air, increasing air humidity, and lowering the ambient temperature, so it is deeply loved by people. There are many types of fountains, which can be roughly divided into the following types.
1.Ordinary decorative fountain A fixed fountain composed of various flower-shaped patterns.
2.Fountains combined with sculptures Fountains and sculptures together form a landscape.
3.Water sculptures The postures of various large water columns are artificially and mechanically shaped to form a landscape.
4.Self-control fountain Use electronic technology to control water, light, sound, color, etc. according to design procedures, forming a strange and changing landscape.
5.In addition to the above types, there are high fountains, dry fountains, stacked springs, musical fountains, running springs, jumping springs, floating fountains, small pin springs, dynamic springs, musical running springs, etc. They can also be formed by spraying. Unique water view.
The main water supply forms of the fountain are: direct water supply, water pump circulating water supply, and submersible pump circulating water supply.
The fountain nozzle is the main working part to complete the artistic modeling of the fountain. Its function is to spray the water with a certain pressure through the shaped nozzle to form a gorgeous spray on the surface of the water. A variety of different nozzle combinations can create a variety of waterscapes, which are exciting and exciting, and produce wonderful artistic effects. There are many types of fountain nozzles. According to different structures, they can be divided into direct shot, rotating, water film, suction, atomization and other types; according to the flower shape of the sprayed water, they can be divided into dandelion, trumpet flower, morning glory, mushroom, Various types such as ice tower, open screen and spray nozzle.
With the application of light, electricity, sound and automatic control devices to fountains, the emergence of musical fountains, geyser fountains, laser fountains, etc., has enriched the content of the fountains and enriched people's dual perception of vision and hearing. The historical fountains of our country, such as the large water fountains in Beijing's Old Summer Palace, modern ones such as the fountains on both sides of Beijing, and the temporary fountains on the National Day Square, are all very majestic and have won praise and applause from Chinese and foreign tourists.
The fountain was originally a natural landscape, an outcrop of pressurized water. The fountain in the garden is generally a decorative water spray device constructed artificially for the needs of landscaping. The fountain can moisten the surrounding air, reduce dust and lower the temperature. The tiny water droplets of the fountain collide with air molecules, which can produce a large number of negative oxygen ions. Therefore, the fountain is beneficial to improve the appearance of the city and enhance the physical and mental health of residents.
The principle of the fountain is the conservation of momentum. From a pipe with a large radius to a pipe with a small radius, a speed change is produced and rushes away from the ground. The speed in the large radius is driven by the pump, and the speed in the small radius is the original speed and the momentum conversion speed. It is necessary to select a micro element to calculate the conservation of momentum, so that a velocity can be obtained. This velocity is the exit velocity, and then it is an upward movement. This is an ideal situation, with no friction and no wind.
Regular fountain pools are often used in open areas. The pool should be large, the spray water should be high, and the lighting should not be too gorgeous. For narrow and long venues, such as street corners, in front of buildings, etc., the pool is mostly rectangular. The pools next to modern residential buildings are mostly round or rectangular. The water volume of the fountain should be large, the sense of water should be strong, and the lighting can be more gorgeous. The form of the fountain is free and can be combined with various decorative pieces such as sculptures, but the changes should be simple and the colors should be simple.
When choosing the location of the fountain and arranging the environment around the fountain, the theme and form of the fountain must first be considered. The determined theme and form must be in harmony with the environment. The fountain and the environment should be considered together, and the environment should be rendered and contrasted with the fountain to achieve The purpose of decorating the environment, or creating artistic conception with the help of the artistic association of a specific fountain.
Generally, it is mostly set in the axis focus, end point or flower bed group of the courtyard. According to the environmental characteristics, some small fountain scenes can be made, and they can be arranged in the courtyard, on both sides of the door, at the turning point of the space, in the hall of public buildings and other places. The arrangement, freely decorate indoor and outdoor spaces. But pay attention to the layout, do not arrange the fountain in the air duct between the buildings, but should be placed in a sheltered environment, so as not to blow by the strong wind, the water shape of the fountain is broken and the falling water is blown out of the pool.
There are two types of natural and regular water spray positions that can be located in the center of the pool to form a pattern, or they can be placed on one side or freely arranged. Secondly, the form and scale of the water spray and the proportion of the fountain must be determined according to the spatial scale of the fountain.
3. The type of fountain nozzle
The sprinkler is the main component of the fountain, it determines the spraying posture. Its function is to pass the water with a certain pressure through the shape of the nozzle to form various expected and gorgeous water shapes. At present, the nozzle styles frequently used at home and abroad include single jet nozzles, water mist nozzles, annular nozzles, rotating nozzles, fan nozzles, porous nozzles, deformable nozzles, dandelion nozzles, suction nozzles, combined nozzles and other nozzles.
4. Water supply and drainage system of fountain design
The water type of the fountain is caused by various factors such as different types of nozzles, different combinations of nozzles, and different angles of the nozzles. In terms of the composition of the fountain water type, its basic elements are the different types produced by different forms of sprinklers, namely, water column, hose, water line, water curtain, water film, water mist, blisters, etc. There are also many ways to combine water types, such as water column, waterline parallel, direct, oblique, overhead, down shot, waterline cross jet, relative jet, radial jet, rotary jet, or water The thread passes through the water curtain and water film, the sprinkler is covered by the water mist, and the water splash is clicked on the water surface.
5. Control method of fountain
There are three main ways to control the spray water volume, spray time, and spray pattern change of the fountain.
Hand valve control. This is the most common and simplest control method. A manual control valve is installed on the water supply pipe of the fountain to adjust the pressure and flow of the water in each pipe section to form a fixed water spray.
Relay control. Usually, a time relay is used to control the opening and closing of water pumps, solenoid valves, colored lights, etc. according to the design time program, so as to realize the automatic change of water spray posture.
Sound control. The voice-activated fountain is a self-controlled fountain that uses the body sound to control the change of the water shape of the fountain. The principle of the sound-controlled fountain is to convert the sound signal into an electric signal, after amplification and other processing, push the relay or its electronic switch, and then control the opening and closing of the solenoid valve located on the waterway, so as to control the on and off of the water flow of the nozzle . In this way, as the sound changes, people can see changes in the size, height and shape of the spray. It can combine people's hearing and vision, and the water spray from the fountain dances with the beautiful melody of the music.
6. The water supply method of the fountain.
Only direct water supply from tap water and circulating water supply with submersible pump. Place the submersible pump in a relatively hidden or low place in the spray pool, and directly pump the pool water to the spray pipe and nozzle to circulate water. Generally suitable for small fountains.
7. Layout of fountain pipes.
The pipes of large-scale waterscape projects can be arranged in dedicated pipe trenches or shared trenches. The pipes of general waterscape projects can be directly laid in the pool. In order to keep the water pressure of each nozzle consistent, it is advisable to adopt ring-shaped piping or symmetrical piping, and minimize the head loss. Each nozzle or group of nozzles should be equipped with a valve to adjust the water pressure. For high-range sprinklers, try to keep a long straight pipe section or install a rectifier in front of the sprinkler.
8. Precautions for fountain design and construction
The method of the fountain pool bottom and pool wall should be based on the specific conditions, and then make special design after mechanical calculation. For the material of the water-proof layer of the pool bottom and wall, the coiled materials with better waterproof effect should be selected, such as EPDM waterproof cloth and chlorinated polyethylene waterproofing coiled materials. The water inlet, overflow, and pump pit of the pool should be set up in a relatively hidden place in the pool. The location of the pump pit and the location of the pipe should be close to the power source and water source. In winter freezing areas, various pool bottom and pool wall practices require consideration of draining out of the pool in winter. Therefore, the drainage facilities of the pool must be easy to control manually.
The fountain is entirely dependent on equipment to produce water, and the control of the water jet is the key link. The combination of different methods will produce colorful changes. The fountain is arranged indoors, and the range of the water flow is not too large. The nozzles are membrane-shaped, water mist and aerated mixed type, with the control of lighting effects, make it colorful and enhance the courtyard atmosphere.